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What is International Parental Child Abduction (IPCA)?

If a child is brought by one parent to another country without consent from the other parent, it is considered an abduction and  trans-border crime.  With a growing number of international marriage and trans-border issues, Japan and the United States became treaty partners under the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (Hague Child Abduction Convention) on April 1, 2014.